E.U. Morales-Cruz, M. Vargas-Ramírez, A. Lobo-Guerrero, A. Cruz-Ramírez, E. Colin-García, R.G. Sánchez-Alvarado, V.H. Gutiérrez-Pérez, J.M. Martínez-Vázquez

Effect of low aluminum additions in the microstructure and mechanical properties of hot forged high-manganese steels

J. Min. Metall. Sect. B-Metall., 59 (1) (2023) 77-90. DOI:10.2298/JMMB220919007M
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Available online 20 February 2023
(Received 19 September 2022; Accepted 07 February 2023)


The present paper analyzes the effect of low aluminum additions and the hot forging process on the microstructure and non-metallic inclusions of high manganese steels. Four high-manganese steels (HMnS) were obtained by adding low aluminum contents of 1.1 and 1.5 wt. % in four medium carbon austenitic steels (0.3 – 0.4 wt% C) with manganese contents of 17 and 22 wt. Samples of the as-cast steels were hot forged to 1100 °C to obtain a whole reduction of 70 %. The microstructural evolution was studied by microscopy techniques (OM, and SEM-EDS) and X-Ray diffraction measurements for the as-cast and hot forged steels. A typical grain columnar zone obtained during solidification of an ingot casting was obtained in the as-cast condition where the microstructure was constituted by non-metallic inclusions in a fully austenitic matrix. The non-metallic inclusions were identified as Al2O3 and MnS particles. The thermomechanical treatment allows the formation of an austenitic microstructure characterized by twins in high manganese steels while a duplex austenitic-martensitic microstructure was obtained for HMnS which contained the lowest manganese contents. The highest tensile properties were obtained for the steel 17Mn-1Al which showed the lowest grain size and higher non-metallic inclusions content. The hardness values were similar to those obtained in the as-cast condition.

Keywords: Steel; Hot forging; Manganese; Hadfield; Microstructure

Correspondence Address:
A. Cruz-Ramírez,
Instituto Politécnico Nacional – ESIQIE, Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, Ciudad de México, México;
email: alcruzr@ipn.mx

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